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8
Coordinated planning

8.1

Coordinated planning

To achieve the zero-growth target for car traffic, urban and regional development must create a basis for a good public transport service and enable growth in cycling and walking. This means that growth should be concentrated around transport hubs and that urban development should be organic.

Land use planning involves slow and long-term processes. The processes are difficult to reverse and must therefore be done right from day one. Where and how people live and work are crucial in determining transport demand and the choice of transport modes. Concentrated urban development, with residences and services in close proximity, leads to completely different transport demand than more scattered development. Concentrated development reduces the need for motorised transport, as more services are within walking or cycling distance of homes. Furthermore, concentrated urban development can provide a good basis for serving the area with efficient and competitive public transport.

In dense cities, walking, cycling and public transport must therefore have unconditional priorityAn increasingly dense city, whether we are speaking of the inner city in Oslo or about one of the regional cities in Akershus, leads to a tougher fight over street-level space. This requires that we choose mobility solutions that use space efficiently. In dense cities, walking, cycling and public transport must therefore have unconditional priority.

8.2

Multi core urban development creates vibrant local city communities

The Planning collaboration’s proposal for urban and regional development in Oslo and Akershus is a good starting point for land use development aimed at a sustainable society. The planning horizon is 2030, with an outlook that stretches to 2050.

In the City of Oslo’s draft municipal plan for the period to 2030, the main strategy is to densify organically. Both in the inner and outer city, areas have been identified in which urban development with dense land use is planned.

Both the Planning collaboration and the municipal plan for Oslo assume a multi core urban development with «cities within the city». This means building dense residential areas and workplace-intensive industries in the continuous urban corridor around Oslo and in six regional cities in Akershus (Ås, Ski, Jessheim, Lillestrøm, Asker and Sandvika). It is crucial that the municipalities base their local land use development on the regional plan.

8.3

Growth must occur at hubs and along public transport axes

… the overall population growth in the capital region should occur near transport hubs and important public transport axes in the city of Oslo, in the continuous urban corridor around Oslo, or in one of the six regional cities.The bulk of the overall population growth in the capital region should occur near transport hubs and important public transport axes in the city of Oslo, in the continuous urban corridor around Oslo, or in one of the six regional cities. Such a development will underpin large investments in infrastructure that have already been made and that are planned for the coming years, both in the metro and railway networks.

8.4

Limited development outside the urban corridor and the regional cities

Outside of the regional cities and the urban corridor, the Planning collaboration has highlighted a number of local towns and small villages. The size and density of these places vary, but they are areas where it is often challenging to provide a competitive public transport service. In these areas, the car will remain dominant also in future.The greater the share of the population growth that takes place outside the urban corridor and regional cities, the more difficult it will be to achieve the goal that the growth in demand for individual transport should be met by public transport along with cycling and walking.

8.5

Continued densification within existing urban areas towards 2060

In the long term – towards 2060 – one important choice will be whether urban development should still take place as close to Oslo as possible, or whether a greater share of the growth should take place in other cities in Eastern Norway. The development of the railway makes it possible for more people to commute over relatively long distances. According to the plan, Hamar, Tønsberg and Fredrikstad should all be about one hour away from Oslo by train in 2024. An alternative to such a development may be to facilitate greater growth more centrally in the Oslo area. In particular, there is potential for public transport oriented development along existing and improved infrastructure in the urban corridor and the regional cities in Akershus.

Nearly 60 per cent of train journeys in Norway take place within Oslo and AkershusThe development of the intercity segments in Eastern Norway does not address the need for sustainable mobility solutions in the Oslo area. Higher population growth means that transport demand will increase more, relatively speaking, in Oslo and nearby municipalities than in the rest of Eastern Norway. Ruter therefore wants to emphasise the significance of strengthening the railway where it has its biggest advantages and where demand for train journeys is the greatest. Nearly 60 per cent of train journeys in Norway take place within Oslo and Akershus. The Intercity trains in Eastern Norway represent only about 10-15 per cent of total train journeys in Norway. A large share of travellers on Intercity trains are travelling locally in Oslo and Akershus. As the largest traffic streams go – and will go – between the centre of Oslo and the outer neighbourhoods and neighbouring municipalities, the development of the train service on the old double tracks and north-south through the centre of Oslo should be prioritised ahead of further development of more peripheral railway segments.

This will in turn provide an increased basis for densification and urban development in these areas, and it is in line with the principles for a coordinated land use and transport planning.

A development that includes strong population growth centrally in the regional cities in Akershus and along transport hubs and important public transport axes in the urban corridor, provides a good market potential for further improvement of the public transport service. A more scattered development, for example in cities farther away from Oslo, does not provide the same basis for public transport. If conditions promoting a larger share of the population growth in Eastern Norway to take place farther away from Oslo, it will be more difficult to reach the goal of meeting growth in personal transport demand by public transport, cycling and walking. Ruter recommends that the planning processes organised by the Oslo region and the Planning collaboration for Oslo and Akershus be considered continued in a joint process that is more long term and applies to the entire functional capital region. At minimum, a 2060 outlook should be adopted.

8.1 Regional development
Regional land use and transport structurePriority growth areas:OslocityRegional citiesRegional areas for labourintensive businessesFocus area for increased urbanand business developmentUrban corridorPriority local cities and townsThe bigger dot size indicates thatsome locations have a higher priorityPrinciples for development ofpublic transport system:Tie Oslo and the regional citiescloser togetherRegional public transport hubsTie regional cities and labourintensive workplace concentrationsto public transport hubsTie priority local cities and townsto regional citiesPublic transport network in theurban corridor that provide formany travel optionsAirportsTransport infrastructure:--road onlyArea covered by the planÅrnesKløftaFrognerSørumsandFetsundBjørkelangenYtre EnebakkVestbyDrøbakHeggedalNesoddtangenFlatebyFjerdingbyEidsvoll verk/RåholtGardermoenEidsvollNittedalNannestadHurdalAskFornebuASKERSANDVIKAOSLOSKIÅSJESSHEIMLILLESTRØMLørenskogKolbotnrailway and road
The Planning collaboration proposes a regional development in which growth is concentrated in the city of Oslo and six regional cities and prioritised small towns in Akershus.
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8.6

Collaboration on the Concept Study Oslo Hub

The Norwegian National Rail Administration, the Norwegian Public Roads Administration and Ruter have together prepared a concept evaluation for public transport capacity towards and through Oslo (Concept Study Oslo Hub). A main concern for the concept evaluation has been to answer what kind of public transport service will be needed in the long term, and which infrastructure measures such a service will require.

The need for a new metro tunnel has been considered the most critical to achieving growth targets.In line with the methodology of a concept evaluation, an assessment has been made of different concepts ranging from reducing demand for transport to large investment projects. Concepts where the growth in capacity is provided at the surface with trams and buses, concepts involving the metro and railway only, and combination concepts have been analysed.

The analyses and assessments in the concept evaluation have been closely coordinated with the work on Ruter’s strategy, and we have used the same analytical basis concerning the need for investments in the train and metro network. In the latter, the need for a new metro tunnel has been considered the most critical to achieving growth targets.

The Concept Study Oslo Hub uses the City of Oslo’s municipal plan and the Planning collaboration’s strategy for land use development in the region as points of departure.

8.7

Tram programme for a comprehensive development of the tram

In collaboration with Sporveien, Oslo Vognselskap and the Agency for City Environment, Ruter has been assigned by the City of Oslo to head the work on procuring new trams. The tram programme has been established to ensure coherence in the development and upgrading of tram infrastructure, the assessment of garage and base station solutions and the actual procurement. The work assumes that the role of the tram in Oslo will be enhanced, and it should enable a further development of tram and light rail solutions in the region in line with the desired urban development.

The tram programme’s starting point is to ensure that the new trams are consistent with the standard of the tram infrastructure. The programme therefore focuses on the completion of the upgrade of tram infrastructure for new trams to allow them to be put into operation in 2020. It also focuses on a gradual conversion of the most heavily trafficked bus lines to tram. Furthermore, the programme looks at future development options for the tram. It has presented a report on the role of the tram that outlines possible future perspectives where the tram takes a greater share of traffic within Ring 2 in Oslo.

8.8

Joint project to prioritise powerful priority in traffic measures (KFT)

In 2012, the Oslo City Council commissioned Ruter and the Agency for City Environment to establish the project «Powerful priority in traffic measures» to enhance the work of giving prioritity to public transport. The project has mapped the challenges reducing and impeding flow of trams and city buses in Oslo and has identified 100 measures that can be implemented during a two-year period. An equivalent project in Akershus is desirable.