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7
Holistic use of measures

7.1

Holistic use of measures

Holistic use of measures is necessary to reach the goal of public transport, cycling and walking meeting the growth in personal transport demand.

Increased funding for operations and investments is one important prerequisite, but it is just as important that the money is spent in the right way. Land use development, measures giving priority access to public transport, to minimize delays and ensure punctual, reliable and swift travel, traffic regulating measures, and infrastructure developments must be seen in context. Service improvements alone are not enough to reach the goal.

Public transport oriented urban and regional development

The expected population growth in the capital region must take place in areas that can easily be served by public transport, cycling and walking. The growth entails a densification in Oslo, at transport hubs in nearby municipalities, and in the prioritised regional cities in Akershus. Such a development will first and foremost reduce the need for motorised transport, as more services will be within cycling and walking distance. Densification also improves the market potential for a good public transport service and makes public transport attractive to more people.

Facilitating walking and cycling

Walking and cycling must absorb a significant part of the growth, and investments must therefore be made in safe and efficient walking and cycling paths. Investment needs in this area have not been assessed and are not discussed further in this document.

Enhanced priority for public transport at street level

A prerequisite for making public transport competitive is that the service is stable and predictable and the overall journey time is not significantly longer than journeys by car. Measures giving priority access to minimize delays and ensure faster travel on the main roads towards Oslo, to the regional cities in Akershus, and to public transport hubs, as well as a more predictable journey time through the city centre of Oslo, are generally very profitable and have a great impact.

The right construction projects in the right order

The construction of infrastructure is never a goal in itself. Infrastructure is a prerequisite for realising the desired public transport, or mobility service. Service development should be guided by market assessments and customer needs. When prioritising projects, projects that provide opportunities for service improvement where demand is highest – and that therefore have significant socio-economic benefits – should be implemented first. Maintenance of existing infrastructure is generally highly beneficial and must therefore be prioritised.

Measures to regulate car use

A report Urbanet Analyse prepared for the municipal sector’s organisation KS, shows that it is very costly for the city regions to achieve the zero-growth target for car use by only expanding the public transport service. A transport policy that regulates car use will reduce the need for funding significantly, and public transport oriented land use planning will have the same effect. This shows that both incentives and restrictive measures are needed to reach our goal.

By implementing measures that regulate car use, the goal of absorbing growth through public transport, cycling and walking can be achieved at a much lower cost than without such measures. Economic incentives such as road use and congestion charges, as well as other measures such as parking availability, are of great significance for our goal achievement and these work in various ways towards the same goal. Economic measures lead to both reduced car traffic and financing for better public transport. Less street parking will both increase the competitiveness of public transport and contribute to better accessibility and reduce delays. Dynamic signage must be used to safeguard the prioritisation of public transport.

Goal-oriented management and predictable financing

About 16 billion kroner is spent annually on public transport in the capital region. Responsibility is split between sectors and public management levels, making holistic prioritisations challenging. The division of responsibility also presents challenges in terms of the management of public transport. The responsibilities of the administration companies must follow natural markets in the regions, regardless of modes of transport or county boundaries.

Public transport, cycling and walking meets the growth in personal tranport demand between 2014 and 2060 through a holistic use of measures.

The sharp growth in public transport – more than 50 per cent since 2007 – along with the growth in cycling and walking, has led to public transport increasing its market share and has contributed to dampening the growth in car traffic. However, ambitious growth targets must be met through continuous improvements of the services offered to customers, which require investments in infrastructure, densification and urbanisation, as well as measures restricting car use. If these are not undertaken, the target will not be reached, and car traffic will increase in the years up until 2060.

Public transport Public transport Public transport Public transport increase Private car Private car Private car Bicycling and walking increase Bicycling and walking Bicyclingand walking Bicycling and walking (walking represents 80-85%) M2016 Measures 2014: 1 330 Million journeys 2060: 1 933 Mill. journeys, 50% increase 320 377 633 550 787 596 550 633 50 3% 104 596 48% 24% 28% 41% 28% 28% 31% 31% 5% 33%

2014 – Market shares by transport mode

In recent years, public transport, cycling and walking have taken market shares from car traffic, and in Oslo car traffic has levelled off. In 2014, the car’s share of total journeys was just under 50 per cent.

2060 – Development of market shares without significant measures for public transport, cycling and walking

Population growth creates more travel. Each person make an average of three journeys a day, and a population increase thus entails a growth in traffic for all transport modes, unless significant measures are undertaken to ensure that the growth in personal transport demand is met by public transport, cycling and walking.

M2016 measures

  • Increased capacity on public transport
  • Densification
  • Prioritisation of public transport, cycling and walking on roads/streets
  • Traffic regulating measures
  • Infrastructure for cycling and walking

2060 – Development of market shares if the measures in M2016 are implemented

Ambitious growth targets must be met by improving services for customers. If the use of measures is handled in a holistic manner, as outlined in M2016, the effect of the measures – and, not least, the synergy between them – will lead to public transport along with cycling and walking meeting the growth in demand for personal transport.